Ophelia DeVore-Mitchell, founder of two African American modeling schools, born
On this dated 1890, African-Americans are disenfranchised. The Mississippi Plan, approved on November 1, used literacy and “understanding” tests to disenfranchise black American citizens. Similar statutes were adopted by South Carolina (1895), Louisiana (1898), North Carolina (1900), Alabama (1901), Virginia (1901), Georgia (1908), and Oklahoma (1910). Southern states later used “White primaries” and other devices to exclude Black voters.